Do any U.K. ex-pats know if the above Ministry covers employees who work for an English employer, (with a U.K. Work Permit), in China? Or do they only cover matters that occur within the United Kingdom's borders?
No. You are covered by Chinese regulations though.
You'll likely find that your contract with a UK university will be much more generous in the considerations it extends to employees than any UK government body is. H&S was always a pain in the arse when I worked in HE in the UK - I was constantly being clucked at by women in funny skirts for lifting boxes or moving my desk or some other outrageously dangerous domestic activity.